The most popular system and mechanism reform is th

2022-07-24
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System and mechanism reform is the key to the development of strategic emerging industries

the Fifth Plenary Session of the 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China stressed the need to accelerate the cultivation and development of strategic emerging industries. The decision of the State Council on accelerating the cultivation and development of strategic emerging industries, based on China's national conditions, science, technology and industrial foundation, defines seven key areas, including energy conservation and environmental protection, new generation information technology, new energy, biology, high-end equipment manufacturing, new materials and new energy vehicles. According to the three-step plan put forward by the national development and Reform Commission, by 2015, the added value of China's strategic emerging industries will strive to reach about 8% of GDP; By 2020, this target will strive to reach about 15%. Strategic emerging industries will play a mainstay role in the process of changing the mode of economic development in China

strategic emerging industries are based on major technological breakthroughs and major development needs, and play a significant and far-reaching leading role in the overall and long-term development of economy and society. Compared with other countries, China has obvious advantages in developing strategic emerging industries in terms of market scale, national system and late development space. Behind the development goals and field layout of strategic emerging industries, a new economic growth pole is gradually taking shape in the unprecedented scale of investment, the convergence of scientific and technological forces and the introduction of a series of industrial support policies

however, at the same time, institutional barriers have increasingly become the fundamental bottleneck affecting and restricting the development of strategic emerging industries. Deepening the reform of system and mechanism is the top priority for the development of strategic emerging industries and the key to the sustainable, healthy and rapid development of strategic emerging industries

system and mechanism restricting the development of strategic emerging industries

strategic emerging industries, which have been upgraded to the national strategic level, are facing many institutional impasses and mechanism obstacles that have not been broken. Fundamentally, the deep-seated reasons for many problems in the development of China's strategic emerging industries stem from the system and mechanism. Mainly reflected in the following aspects

first, the problem of the separation of science and technology and economy still exists

on the one hand, the scientific and technological reserves supporting the development of strategic emerging industries are insufficient, the key and core technologies in many industrial fields are still controlled by others, and the innovation ability needs to be improved

on the other hand, problems such as unclear target orientation of scientific and technological innovation activities around strategic emerging industries and low input-output efficiency still exist in varying degrees; The barriers between scientific research institutes, universities and enterprises in terms of technology and talents have not been completely broken, and the channel for transformation of achievements is not smooth enough. At present, the national average transformation rate of scientific and technological achievements is less than 10%, and there are also many institutional and institutional obstacles to the large-scale industrialization of new technologies

in addition, the innovation subject status of enterprises has not been implemented, and the innovation ability is generally weak. Even some high-tech enterprises have a very shallow understanding of the nature of innovation and its impact on industrial strategy

second, the innovation industry chain and the ecosystem of strategic emerging industries are not sound

China's high-tech industry has been in the low-end platform based on product export strategy in the global industrial chain for a long time, lacking industrial autonomy and innovation integration ability, resulting in the division of labor pattern, strong economy and weak industry

factories that have independently built large passenger aircraft have long been satisfied with processing parts for Boeing aircraft in the United States; The railway department, which has independently developed locomotive and railway signal system, has introduced a large number of German and Japanese technologies. Although the economy is growing at a high speed, the industrial system has been hit in pieces, the organization and coordination of basic industries have been weakened gradually, and even have collapsed in some fields

this is the industrial foundation and industrial ecological environment for the development of strategic emerging industries in China

third, the government macro management lacks an effective decision-making and coordination mechanism

as the strategic emerging industry is in its infancy, the government lacks management experience, and is not sure about the functional positioning and collaborative interaction relationship between government promotion and market dominance, it often falls into the dilemma of "one tube is dead" and "one release is chaotic"

at the same time, due to the serious division of departments in the system, the great difficulty in decision-making and coordination, the phenomenon of "painting the ground as a prison" and "multiple policies" are common. Some powerful enterprises and departments use traditional forces to hinder the commercialization of technology, resulting in the strategic emerging industries with mature technology lagging behind in business and international competition

nationally, in the organization and deployment of developing strategic emerging industries, there are still many problems, such as multi head layout, scattered forces, inaccurate positioning, insufficient foresight, uncoordinated policies, and inadequate measures

The three fusion problem is a typical case. The price formation mechanism of the energy conservation and environmental protection industry, the market access mechanism of innovative drugs, and the military civilian integration mechanism of satellite applications are also not sound enough, which have formed a bottleneck restriction on the development of related industries; The corresponding intermediary service institutions and the construction of market application support system have a long way to go

fourth, the financial and tax policy support is insufficient and the investment management is poor

in terms of supporting the development of strategic emerging industries, a multi input mechanism of government and social resources is taking shape. However, the capital market and investment and financing system that adapt to the characteristics and requirements of strategic emerging industries are not perfect, the intensity is not enough, the investment is scattered, and the support mode, policy system, use and management mechanism need to be improved

for example, some government agencies and industry departments do not conduct scientific demonstration and public bidding for special subsidies, directly specify subsidy industry categories and technological development routes, and even directly subsidize local or industry affiliated enterprises. The so-called "no flow of fertilizer and water to other people's fields" not only causes waste of resources and low benefits, but also seriously distorts the policy orientation, resulting in profound adverse effects

fifth, the regional layout lacks overall planning and division of labor coordination

while attaching importance to and actively developing strategic emerging industries, there are signs of herd action and low-end competition in some places to varying degrees

for example, more than 100 cities in 27 provinces, cities and autonomous regions nationwide have proposed to build new energy industry bases. Nearly 80% of the regions choose to develop energy-saving and environmental protection industries, more than 90% of the regions choose to develop new energy, new materials, electronic information and biomedical industries, 60% of the regions choose to develop biological breeding industries, and more than 50% of the regions choose to develop new energy vehicles, which points out the way for the development of the automotive industry

such blind investment and repeated construction may not only produce serious structural surplus, but also cause great waste of resources and low efficiency; Moreover, it is not conducive to the regional division and cooperation of strategic emerging industries, and it is difficult to form a coordinated and complete industrial chain and industrial ecosystem

sixth, the training, use and flow mechanism of innovative and entrepreneurial talents is not perfect

the cultivation of innovative and entrepreneurial talents is an institutional problem faced by China's education, science and technology and industry. At present, the scale and structure of China's innovative talent team (including discipline structure, industrial structure, capacity structure, etc.) are still difficult to adapt to and meet the needs of the development of strategic emerging industries; In some industrial fields, especially in high-tech enterprises, the lack of high-end innovation and entrepreneurship talents is quite prominent. In talent training, especially in talent introduction, there are some undesirable phenomena in varying degrees, such as blind haste, disorderly competition, great achievements, seeking perfection, pretending to be impetuous and eager for quick success

countermeasures and suggestions to solve the problems of system and mechanism reform and development

continue to deepen the reform of science and technology and economic system, build a cooperative innovation mechanism between industry, University, research and application, and strengthen the supporting role of scientific and technological innovation

the competition of strategic emerging industries is essentially the competition of scientific and technological innovation ability

on the one hand, key and core technologies fundamentally determine the direction, level and benefits of industrial development. Without key and core technologies, no matter how large the industrial scale is, it does not have strategic competitiveness; On the other hand, the key and core technologies in key industries and important fields have monopoly value and cannot be bought. Only by relying on independent innovation, especially original innovation, can independent intellectual property rights be formed

according to the survey, the domestic market share of China's high-end CNC machine tool system is less than 2%, and large complete sets of equipment, core components and important basic components such as large aircraft, semiconductor and integrated circuit special equipment rely on imports for a long time. The installed capacity of wind energy in China ranks among the top in the world, but the design of wind turbine and the technology of key components such as bearings and control systems are still controlled by others; The output of solar cells ranks first in the world, but the production equipment of photovoltaic cells mainly depends on imports. The overall level of frontier fields such as biology and ocean engineering, the second-generation thin-film battery technology and the third-generation high-power concentrated solar power generation technology are far from the international advanced level, and the gap in the industrialization stage is even greater

strategic emerging industries will become water without a source and trees without roots if the institutional barriers of science and technology and economy are not removed, and the supporting function of scientific and technological innovation is not given full play

strategic emerging industries represent not only the direction of future industrial development, but also the frontier direction of scientific and technological innovation. The scientific and technological innovation activities supporting the development of strategic emerging industries must focus on the seven industrial sectors that have been identified by the country, strengthen the goal orientation, highlight independent innovation, focus on innovation and leapfrog, and take breaking through a number of core and key technologies and mastering independent intellectual property rights as the primary task and core goal

at present, it is necessary to give further play to the guiding role of various types of science and technology plans at all levels, set mandatory thresholds, and coordinate relevant science and technology plans with national major projects, industrial development plans, and technological innovation activities in key industries, so as to promote the integration of industry, University, research and application

for major scientific and technological projects, it is necessary to inspect the deformation process and destruction of materials through tightening experiments. It has important industrial application background, and can break through key and core technologies around the bottleneck restricting industrial development, so as to form a systematic solution with independent intellectual property rights; Major science and technology industrialization projects must have the key core technologies and common technologies of independent innovation, have urgent application needs and good market prospects, and can lead and promote the development of relevant strategic emerging industries

the split between science and technology and economy in China is caused by the system of the science and technology system itself and the weak demand for innovation factors under the global low-end manufacturing platform

we should seize the opportunity of the positive interaction between supply and demand of innovative elements driven by the development of strategic emerging industries, promote the combination of industrial development subjects and R & D subjects of scientific and technological resources, build a high-end industry university research and application cooperation innovation platform, promote the docking of discipline chain, innovation chain and industrial chain, strengthen resource integration, promote joint research in the most basic and most likely key areas, and strive to break through key and core technologies

enterprises should, while strengthening their own innovation ability, fully integrate and make use of the scientific and technological resources of scientific research institutes and universities, and improve the industrial technology water, so it is necessary to timely eliminate and pay attention to the re-entry of sealing air to reduce the noise level; Scientific research institutions and universities should also seize the opportunity to respond to the demand for scientific and technological support from the development of strategic emerging industries, strengthen cutting-edge and leading technology research and development in related industries, and strengthen strategic cooperation with leading enterprises. Both parties are in the scientific and technological plan and

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